4VOO distinct man

men's skin care, men's cosmetics / makeup:
purpose of ingredients



purpose and description

AHA AHA is an acronym for alpha hydroxy acid. AHAs are derived from various plant sources or from milk. In low concentrations, AHAs work as water-binding agents. at higher concentrations they can exfoliate skin cells by breaking down the substance that holds skin cells together. the most effective and well-researched AHAs are glycolic and lactic acid. 

AHAs have been widely used for therapy of photodamaged skin, to normalize hyperkeratinization (over-thickened skin), and to increase viable epidermal thickness and dermal glycosaminoglycans content. a vast amount of research has described how the aging process affects the skin. many unwanted changes can be improved by topical application of AHAs, including glycolic and lactic acid.

algae extract algae algae extract algae are simple chlorophyll containing organisms in a family that includes more than 20,000 different known species. In cosmetics, algae are used as water-binding agents and antioxidants. algae contain proteins, vitamin A, sugar, starch, vitamin B1, iron, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, and calcium. 
allantoin by-product of uric acid extracted from urea and considered an effective anti-irritant.
aloe vera extract aloe vera (aloe barbadenis) applied topically has clinical effectiveness. research indicates that isolated components of aloe vera such as glycoprotein are effective for wound healing and as an anti-irritant. in pure form, aloe vera's benefits on skin are its lack of occlusion and the refreshing sensation it provides. the Egyptians, Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Indians and Chinese used aloe for a number of cosmetic purposes. it is said that Cleopatra attributed the secret of her beauty to aloe gel. historians recount the story of how Aristotle persuaded Alexander the great to conquer the island of Socotra to ensure he had enough aloe to tend his soldiers‘ wounds. the sap from the aloe leaf is valued to protect skin from harmful environmental factors.
aluminum oxide crystals also known as alumina, aluminum oxide is used as an abrasive and an absorbent in cosmetics.
amino acid in skin-care products, amino acids work primarily as water-binding agents and some have antioxidant properties and wound-healing abilities.
see also protein and natural moisturizing factors.
ascorbyl palmitate (vitamin C)  stable and non-acidic form of vitamin C that is effective as an antioxidant.
avocado oil emollient oil similar to other non-fragrant plant oils.
see also natural moisturizing factors.
bentonite clay like material used as an absorbent in cosmetics.
benzophenone-3 also called oxybenzone. a sunscreen agent that protects primarily from the sun's UVB rays and some, but not all, UVA rays.
see also UVA.
bilberry extract  research shows bilberry to be an effective antioxidant.
borage oil  contains gamma linolenic acid.
see also gamma linolenic acid.
C-12, 15 alkyl benzoate used as an emollient in cosmetics.
see also glyceryl ester.
candelilla wax derived from candelilla plants; used as a thickening agent and emollient to give products such as lipsticks or stick foundations their form.
caprylic/capric triglyceride derived from coconut and considered to be a good emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.
carbomer thickening agent used primarily to create gel-like formulations.
ceteareth-20 fatty alcohol that is used to thicken cosmetics and keep ingredients mixed and stable.
cetearyl alcohol fatty alcohol used as an emollient, emulsifier, thickener, and carrying agent for other ingredients. can be derived naturally as in coconut fatty alcohol.
cetyl dimethicone silicone substance derived from silica. the unique fluid properties of silicone give it a great deal of slip and in its various forms can feel like silk on the skin, impart emolliency, and be a water-binding agent that holds up well, even when skin becomes wet. in other forms, it is also used extensively for wound healing and for improving the appearance of scars.
chamomile extract chamomile is recognized for its many medicinal properties. in 16th Rome, it was used for its anti-inflammatory and soothing action. an herb recognized today for its anti-irritant, soothing, and antioxidant properties.
chromium hydroxide green according to FDA, chromium hydroxide green may be safely used to colour products, including those for use in the area of the eye.
citric acid derived from citrus and used primarily to adjust the pH of products 
cucumber extract  used to calm and sooth skin
deionized water filtered water used in cosmetics. all water used in cosmetic formulations goes through this process to remove components that could interfere with a product’s stability and performance.
diazolidinyl urea a common preservative found in cosmetics to eliminate the contamination and unchecked growth of bacteria, fungus, and mold that can result.
see also preservatives.
dimethicone silicone substance derived from silica. the unique fluid properties of silicone give it a great deal of slip and in its various forms it can feel like silk on the skin, impart emolliency, and be a water-binding agent that holds up well, even when skin becomes wet. In other forms, it is also used extensively for wound healing and for improving the appearance of scars.
dipeptide-2 research shows dipeptide-2 to increases lymphatic circulation.
disodium EDTA EDTA is an abbreviation for ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid. it is a stabilizer used in cosmetics to prevent ingredients in a given formula from binding with trace elements (particularly minerals) that can exist in water and other ingredients to cause unwanted product changes such as texture, odor, and consistency. the technical term for this function is a chelating agent.
dl-panthenol (pro-vitamin B5) alcohol form of vitamin B, also known as pantothenic acid or vitamin B5. research supports vitamin B5 as being effective for acne, hydration, and wound healing.
echinacea extract echinacea has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties on skin.
elastin major component of skin that gives it flexibility. sun damage causes elastin in skin to deteriorate. elastin can be derived from both plant and animal sources.
ethyl alcohol an organic compound that has a vast range of uses in cosmetics.
evening primrose oil can have anti-inflammatory and emollient benefits for skin.
see also gamma linolenic acid.
fatty acid substances typically found in plant and animal lipids (fat). fatty acids include compounds such as glycerides, sterols, and phospholipids. they are used in cosmetics as emollients, and when mixed with glycerin, are good cleansing agents. fatty acids are natural components of skin and are components of a complex mixture that makes up the outermost layer protecting the body against oxidative damage. fatty acids can help supplement the skin's intercellular matrix.
see also natural moisturizing factors.
film-forming agent a large group of ingredients including PVP, acrylates, acrylamides, and copolymers. when applied they leave a pliable, cohesive, and continuous covering over the hair or skin. this film produces excellent water-binding properties and leaves a smooth feel on skin.
flaxseed oil flaxseed powder oil from the seeds of the flax plant are an excellent source of fatty acids which have antioxidant properties. seeds are also a source of linoleic acid.
see also linoleic acid.
fragrance one or a blend of either volatile and/or fragrant plants oils that impart aroma and odor to products.
see also volatile oil.
galactoarabinan polysaccharide extracted from the western larch tree.
see also mucopolysaccharide.
gamma linolenic acid also known as GLA, a fatty acid used in cosmetics as an emollient, antioxidant, and cell regulator. GLA is considered to promote healthy skin growth and is an anti-inflammatory agent. GLA is found in black currant oil or seeds, evening primrose oil, and borage oil.
see also fatty acid.
glycerin also called glycerol; it is present in all natural lipids (fats) whether animal or vegetable. It can be manufactured by the hydrolysis of fats and by the fermentation of sugars. glycerin shores up the skin's natural protection by filling in the area known as the intercellular matrix and by attracting just the right amount of water to maintain the skin's homeostasis. there is also research indicating that the presence of glycerin in the intercellular layer helps other skin lipids do their jobs better.
see also intercellular matrix and natural moisturizing factors.
glyceryl ester large group of ingredients that are composed of fats and oils. these multitudinous fats and oils are used in cosmetics as emollients and lubricants, as well as water-binding and thickening agents.
glyceryl stearate used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.
see also glyceryl ester.
grapefruit extract an emollient oil that has good antioxidant properties. Grapefruit has been reputed as being both moisturizing and cleansing for the skin. The active principles it contains, such as carbohydrates, amino acids and fruit acids, are responsible for its moisturizing and cleansing action, while the flavenoids normalize the permeability and increase the resistance of capillaries. This synergy is what produces its purifying effect.
see also grape seed extract and linoleic acid.
grape seed extract grape seed extract contains proanthocyanidins, which are considered to be very potent antioxidants, helpful for diminishing the sun's damaging effects and lessening free-radical damage. It has also been shown to have wound-healing properties.
hesperidin methyl chalcone decreases capillary permeability. a bioflavonoid that has antioxidant and water-binding properties for skin. It is also called "vitamin P”. bioflavonoids include a diverse range of substances that are components of many fruits and vegetables. these have been shown to have potent antioxidant and gene-regulatory activity. 
hyaluronic acid component of skin tissue that is used in skin care products as an excellent water-binding agent.
see also natural moisturizing factors.
hydroxyethyl cellulose the primary fiber component of plants that are used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and to bind other ingredients together.
imidazolidinyl urea a common type of preservative found in cosmetics. there is a risk to skin from a product without preservatives, owing to the contamination and unchecked growth of bacteria, fungus, and mold that can result.
see also preservatives.
intercellular matrix the "mortar" that holds layers of skin cells together, creating a firm natural barrier. preserving the intercellular layer keeps bacteria out, moisture in, and the skin's surface smooth.
see also natural moisturizing factors.
iodopropynyl butyl carbamate used as a preservative in cosmetics.
see also preservatives.
iron oxides compounds of iron that are used as a coloring agent in some cosmetics. 
japanese green tea extract polyphenols that are the active ingredients in green tea possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. studies conducted on human skin have demonstrated that green tea polyphenols (GTP) prevent ultraviolet (UVB) induced immune suppression and skin cancer induction. green tea has inhibitory activity against tumorigenesis and is an anti-inflammatory. 
jojoba oil emollient oil similar to other nonfragrant plant oils.
see also natural moisturizing factors.
kaolin natural clay like mineral that is used in cosmetics for its absorbent properties.
lactic acid an alpha hydroxy acid extracted from milk. it exfoliates cells on the surface of skin by breaking down the material that holds skin cells together.
see also AHA.
lemon extract the delicate fragrance, abundant vitamin C, and fruit acid content is still widely used to soothe and tone skin, as well as lighten skin colouring. has antibacterial properties. moisturizes, purifies, and tones.
linoleic acid unsaturated fatty acid used as an emollient in cosmetics. there is some research showing it to be effective in cell regulation and skin-barrier repair, as well as an antioxidant and an anti-inflammatory.
see also fatty acid and natural moisturizing factors.
macadamia nut oil used in cosmetics as an emollient for dry skin.
manganese violet according to the FDA, manganese violet is safe for use in colouring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye.
menthol derived from peppermint, both the peppermint oil and the extract can have antimicrobial properties.
methylparaben  preservative.
see also preservatives.
mica earth mineral used to give products sparkle and shine.
mucopolysaccharide also known as glycosaminoglycans. this is a large class of ingredients that includes hyaluronic acid, which is found universally in skin tissue. these substances, in association with protein, bind water and other cellular elements so they remain intact, forming a matrix that holds skin cells together.
see also natural moisturizing factors.
natural moisturizing factors one of the primary elements in keeping skin healthy is making sure the structure of the epidermis (outer layer of skin) is intact. that structure is defined and created by skin cells that are held together by the intercellular matrix. the intercellular matrix is the "glue" within the skin that keeps skin cells together, helps prevent individual skin cells from losing water, and creates the smooth, non-flaky appearance of skin. the components that do this are called natural moisturizing factors (NMFs). lipids are the oil and fat components of skin that prevent evaporation and provide lubrication. it is actually the intercellular matrix along with the skin's lipid content that gives skin a good deal of its surface texture and feel. when the lipid and NMF content of skin is reduced, we experience surface roughness, flaking, fine lines, and a tight uncomfortable feeling; moreover, the skin's healing process is impaired. NMFs and lipids make up an expansive group of ingredients that include ceramide, hyaluronic acid, cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, glycosphingolipids, amino acids, linoleic acid, glycosaminoglycans, glycerin, mucopolysaccharide, and sodium PCA (pyrrolidone carboxylic acid). Ingredients that mimic the lipid content of skin are apricot oil, canola oil, coconut oil, corn oil, jojoba oil, jojoba wax, lanolin, lecithin, olive oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, shea butter, soybean oil, squalane, and sweet almond oil which can all be extremely helpful for skin. all of the skin's supporting NMFs and lipids are present in the intercellular structure of the epidermis, both between skin cells and in the lipid content on the surface of skin. when any of these ingredients are used in skin-care products, they appear to help stabilize and maintain this complex intercellular matrix. NMFs and lipids are great at keeping depleted skin from feeling dry and uncomfortable. more important, all of these ingredients, and many more, can help support the intercellular matrix of the skin by keeping it intact. this support helps prevent surface irritation from penetrating deeper into the skin, works to keep bacteria out, and aids the skin's immune/healing system.
niacinamide (vitamin B3)  also called niacin and nicotinic acid. studies demonstrate that a 4% concentration of niacinamide applied topically in gel form can have effects similar to those of clindamycin, a prescription-only topical antibiotic. some existing animal studies and in vitro studies on human fibroblasts (cells that produce connective tissue such as collagen) have demonstrated that niacinamide may have a mitigating effect on skin tumors. topical application of niacinamide has been shown to increase ceramide and free fatty acid levels in skin and to prevent skin from losing water content.
nylon-12 powder substance that is used as an absorbent and thickening agent.
octyl dodecanol  skin conditioner.
octyl methoxycinnamate sunscreen agent used to protect skin primarily from the sun's UVB rays.
octyl palmitate used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient.
octyl salicylate  sunscreen agent used to protect skin primarily from the sun's UVB rays.
orange extract fragrant extract with a high level of vitamin C, used in cosmetics for its anti-free radical, calming, softening and revitalizing properties. orange flower wax is used in cosmetics and is extremely valuable
ozokerite a mineral that is used as a thickening agent in cosmetics, especially for lipsticks and stick foundations.
palmitoyl pentapeptide-3 Improves the appearance of wrinkles. It is a fatty acid mixed with amino acids. research shows it to be more effective than retinol or vitamin C in skin care products. a concentration of 3% to 5% is recommended.
see also amino acid and fatty acid.
palmitoyl tetrapeptide-3 a lipopeptide that mimics the activity of DHEA to restore cytokine balance to mature skin. sometimes referred to as the youth hormone molecule, DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) decreases with age, causing an increase in interleukin-6. palmitoyl tetrapetide-3 helps skin appear younger looking by correcting this imbalance and reducing the basal and UV induced secretions of interleukin-6 in the keratinocytes and fibroblasts.
phenoxyethanol common cosmetic preservative. 
see preservatives.
pineapple extract  contains the enzyme bromelain, which can break down the connecting layers between skin cells to exfoliate skin. referred to as a fruit enzyme is skin care products.
plant collagen a major component of skin that gives it structure. sun damage causes collagen in skin to deteriorate. collagen can be derived from both plant and animal sources.
polysorbate-20 fatty acid that is used as an emollients in cosmetics.
see also fatty acid.
preservatives substances used in cosmetics to prevent bacterial and microbial contamination of products.
propylene glycol  along with other glycols and glycerol it is a humectant which binds water to the skin. it is also a delivery agent to help active ingredients penetrate the skin. 
propylparaben preservative used in cosmetics to prevent bacterial and fungal growth in products.
See preservatives.
protein proteins are composed of an assortment of amino acids. components of proteins can have benefits for skin, but overall they are used for their water-binding and emollient properties.
PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) present in miniscule amounts, it places an imperceptible film over the skin that is considered to be water-binding giving the appearance of firmer skin.
see also film-forming agent.
quaternium-15 preservative used in cosmetics.
retinyl palmitate (vitamin A) is a combination of retinol (pure vitamin A) and palmitic acid. there is research showing that retinol and retinyl palmitate can increase epidermal thickness and function in a manner similar to tretinoin. In skin, tretinoin is the form of vitamin A that can positively affect cell production by binding to the tretinoin receptor sites on the cell. 
rosemary extract there is a legend that in the 16th century, Isabelle of Hungary prepared with her own hands a rosemary cordial, which is supposed to have restored her to health and youth at the age of 70. Essential oils of rosemary are used in cosmetics for their revitalizing and moisturizing action. Ursolic acid, a component of rosemary, has strong anti-irritation and repairing properties. antioxidant benefits on skin.
seaweed extract  seaweed is a group of sea plants of many sizes and shapes having a gelatin-like consistency. seaweed has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and contains trace elements and minerals.
see also algae extract.
shea butter a plant lipid that is used as an emollient in cosmetics.
see also natural moisturizing factors.
silica beeswax  silica is a mineral found abundantly in sandstone, clay, and granite, as well as in parts of plants and animals. in cosmetics it is used as an absorbent powder and thickening agent.
sodium laureth sulphate can be derived from coconut; it is a gentle and effective surfactant used as a cleansing agent.
see also surfactant.
squalane also known as squalene, it is an oil derived from shark liver or from plants and sebum. It is a natural component of skin and is considered a good emollient that has antioxidant and immune-stimulating properties. 
see natural moisturizing factors.
steareth-20 fatty acid used as an emollient and as an agent to help keep other ingredients intact in a formulation.
see also fatty acid and thickening agent.
sugar cane extract ingredients like sugarcane extract, fruit extracts, mixed fruit extracts, and milk solids are associated with AHAs. glycolic acid can be derived from sugarcane.
see also AHA.
sugar maple extract ingredients like sugarcane extract, fruit extracts, mixed fruit extracts, and milk solids are associated with AHAs. glycolic acid can be derived from sugarcane.
see also AHA.
sun protection factor  most commonly referred to as SPF, it is a number assigned to a product that identifies its ability to protect the skin from sunburn or to protect the skin from turning pink or red when exposed to sun. SPF numbering is regulated by the FDA. it is a measure of the amount of time a person can stay in the sun without getting burned if a sunscreen is applied. since sunburn results from UVB exposure, not UVA radiation, SPF is primarily a measure of UVB protection. at this time, there is no numbering system to indicate the level of protection a sunscreen can provide from UVA radiation, which affects the deeper layers of skin. a sunscreen with an SPF 15 or higher is universally recommended. sunscreen must be applied liberally and evenly or the sun protection value of the product will not be achieved and damage to the skin will occur. it is essential that a sunscreen contain the ingredients avobenzone, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide to protect from UVA damage.
see also sunscreen and UVA.
sunscreen products strictly regulated by the FDA that provide protection from sunburn and some amount of sun damage. to determine how much protection a sunscreen provides, most consumers turn to the SPF, or sun protection factor, listed on the label. the higher the number, the greater the product protects the skin. sunscreen should not be used to prolong time spent in the sun. even with a sunscreen, you are not going to prevent damage from the sun. 
see also sun protection factor and UVA.
surfactant surfactant is an acronym for surface-active agent. surfactants degrease and emulsify oils and fats and suspend oil, allowing them to be washed away. chemists and researchers often use the term surfactant and cleansing agent interchangeably. 
talc finely ground mineral used as an absorbent and the primary base of most pressed and loose powder. 
tartaric acid  see also AHA.
tea tree oil also known as melaleuca, from the name of its plant source, Melaleuca alternifolia. it has disinfecting properties that have been shown to be effective against the bacteria that cause blemishes. 
thickening agent substances that can have a soft and creamy, to hard wax-like texture and feel. they are also excellent lubricants. there are literally thousands of ingredients in this category that give cosmetic products their distinctive feel and form.
titanium dioxide an inert earth mineral and one of the best sunscreen ingredients in cosmetics protecting skin from UVA and UVB radiation. non irritating, it is also used to thicken, whiten, and lubricate.
see also UVA.
tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) considered an antioxidant superstar. vitamin E is a lipid-soluble vitamin (meaning it likes fat better than water) that has eight different forms, of which some are known for being excellent antioxidants when applied topically to skin, particularly tocopherol. tocopherol provides significant antioxidant protection against ultraviolet radiation induced oxidative damage. the acetate form (tocopherol acetate) is also bioavailable and protective for skin. more than other tissues, the skin is exposed to numerous environmental chemical and physical agents such as ultraviolet light causing oxidative stress (free-radical damage). In the skin this results in several short and long term adverse effects such as erythema (redness), edema (swelling), skin thickening, wrinkling, and an increased incidence of skin cancer. vitamin E is the major naturally occurring lipid soluble antioxidant protecting skin from the adverse effects of oxidative stress including photo aging (sun damage). many studies document that vitamin E occupies a central position as a highly efficient antioxidant, thereby providing possibilities to decrease the frequency and severity of pathological events in the skin. In essence, vitamin E functions in the body and on the skin to protect cells against free-radical damage, and an abundant assortment of researchers have theorized that this can slow the aging process. 
triethanolamine used in cosmetics to balance pH.
ultramarines these are dyes derived from minerals in block form. ultramarines are made synthetically by heating a mixture of kaolin clay, sodium carbonate, sulfur, silica, carbon, and resin to very high temperatures. the FDA has approved their use in cosmetics and toiletries. ultramarines are insoluble in water.
volatile oil group of volatile fluids derived primarily from plants, and used in cosmetics primarily as fragrant additives.
wheat germ oil emollient plant oil similar to all non-fragrant plant oils.
see also natural moisturizing factors.
willow bark extract contains salicin. salicin, much like salicylic acid, is stable only under acidic conditions. willow bark has anti-inflammatory benefits for skin. 
witch hazel extract has potent antioxidant, anti-irritant, and astringent properties. witch hazel also has a high tannin content that is a potent antioxidant. witch hazel leaves have become a classic treatment for troubles affecting the veins, to strengthen the resistance of the small blood vessels, which burst under the skin. 
xanthan gum used as a thickening agent.
zinc oxide an inert earth mineral and an excellent sunscreen protecting skin from UVA and UVB radiation. non irritating, it is also used to thicken, whiten, and lubricate. zinc oxide does not irritate.
see also UVA.
zinc stearate used in cosmetic powders.